Peanut butter benefits

Benefits of peanut butter are enormous. Peanut butter is a firm favorite among adults and children alike. Although tasty, many people still wonder about the health benefits of peanut butter.

Peanuts and peanut butter contain nutrients that may boost a person’s heart health and improve blood sugar levels.

Depending on how people use peanut butter in their diet, it can help them lose weight, or put on pounds during weight training or bodybuilding.

However, the benefits of peanut butter should be carefully evaluated because peanut butter is high in calories and fat, so people should enjoy it in moderation.

In this article, we look at the benefits of eating peanut butter and explain the risks associated with consuming it.

Nutritional benefits of peanut butter

Peanut butter in a jar from above
Peanut butter is a good source of protein and vitamin B-6.

Peanut butter provides a good amount of protein, along with essential vitamins and minerals, such as magnesium, potassium, and zinc.

Most notably, each 2-tablespoon (tbsp) serving of smooth peanut butter provides the following nutrients, minerals, and vitamins:

  • Protein. Peanut butter contains 7.02 grams (g) of protein per 2-tbsp serving. This counts toward the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for women of 46 g and 56 g for men, which varies by age and activity level.
  • Magnesium. With 57 milligrams (mg) of magnesium, each serving helps towards the RDA of 400–420 mg in men and 310–320 in women. Magnesium is essential for health, playing a role in over 300 chemical processes in the body.
  • Phosphorous. Each serving contains 107 mg of phosphorus, which is about 15.3 percent of the RDA of 700 mg for adults. Phosphorus helps the body to build healthy cells and bones and helps cells to produce energy.
  • Zinc. A serving of peanut butter provides 0.85 mg of zinc. This is 7.7 percent of the recommended daily intake of 11 mg for men, and 10.6 percent of the RDA of 8 mg for women. Zinc is necessary for immunity, protein synthesis, and DNA formation.
  • Niacin. Peanut butter contains 4.21 mg of niacin per serving, which makes a useful contribution towards a person’s recommended intake of 14 to 16 mg. Niacin benefits digestion and nerve function and helps produce energy.
  • Vitamin B-6. With 0.17 g of vitamin B-6 per serving, peanut butter provides almost 14 percent of an adult’s RDA of 1.3 mg. Vitamin B-6 plays a role in over 100 enzyme reactions in the body and may be necessary for heart and immune system health.

However, there are also nutritional disadvantages if a person eats more than the recommended amount of peanut butter.

Peanut butter is high in calories, saturated fats, and sodium.

Each serving contains 3.05 g of saturated fats, which is 23.5 percent of the American Heart Association’s maximum recommended daily intake of saturated fat for those consuming 2,000 calories a day. People should aim for less than 13 g of saturated fat per day.

It also contains 152 mg of sodium, which is 10.1 percent of an adult’s ideal daily upper intake of sodium of 1,500 mg.

Health benefits of peanut butter

Eating peanut butter in moderation and as part of an overall healthful diet may provide the following benefits:

1. Weight loss

Several studies suggest that eating peanuts and other nuts can help people maintain their weight, or even help with weight loss.

This may be because peanuts improve satiety, which is the feeling of fullness, thanks to their protein, fat, and fiber content.

A 2018 study suggests that eating nuts, including peanuts, reduces a person’s risk of being overweight or obese. This study compared the dietary and lifestyle data for over 373,000 people from 10 European countries over 5 years.

Earlier research based on data gathered from over 51,000 women suggested that those who ate nuts twice weekly or more experienced slightly less weight gain over an 8-year period than women who rarely ate nuts.

2. Boosting heart health

Peanut butter contains many nutrients that can improve heart health, including:

  • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
  • niacin
  • magnesium
  • vitamin E

The proportion of unsaturated fats (PUFAs and MUFAs) to saturated fats in the diet plays a particularly important role in heart health. Peanut butter has a similar ratio to olive oil — which is also known as a heart-healthy option.

A high intake of nuts may have links to a reduced risk of mortality from heart disease or other causes. The researchers recommend peanuts in particular as a cost-effective way to improve heart health for some people.

Research also suggests that including 46 g per day of peanuts or peanut butter into an American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet plan for 6 months could benefit the heart, improve blood lipid profiles, and control weight for people with diabetes.

However, as peanut butter is high in calories, it is crucial that a person limits their intake if they do not want to put on weight. Eating more than the recommended amount will also increase fat and sodium intake, which does not benefit the heart.

3. Bodybuilding

Senior lady working out at the gym
Peanut butter is an easy way to increase calorie intake.

Many bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts include peanut butter in their diets for various reasons.

Although calorie amounts will vary based on stature, activity level, and metabolic rate, the typical daily recommended calorie intake ranges from around 1,600–2,400 calories per day for women and up to 3,000 calories per day for men. However, active adult men should consume up to 3,000 calories daily, while active women need up 2,400 calories per day.

Thanks to its high-calorie content, peanut butter is an easy way to increase calorie and unsaturated fat intake.

Nut butter is also a source of protein, which is essential for building and repairing muscles. Although peanut butter is not a complete protein — meaning it does not contain all of the essential amino acids the body needs — it does count toward a person’s daily protein intake.

Spreading peanut butter on whole-grain bread makes a more complete protein meal, as the bread contains the amino acid methionine, which peanut butter lacks.

4. Managing blood sugar levels

Peanut butter is a relatively low-carbohydrate food that contains good amounts of fats and protein, as well as some fiber.

These characteristics mean that peanut butter, with no added sugar, does not have a significant impact on blood glucose levels. This means it can be a good option for those with diabetes and confirm the benefits of peanut butter.

The ADA recommend that people replace saturated fats with monounsaturated fats in their diets. They suggest peanut butter, peanuts, and peanut oil as good sources of monounsaturated fat.

A small 2013 study suggests that eating peanut butter or peanuts for breakfast could help women with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes to manage their blood glucose levels. According to the survey, the women who added nuts to their breakfast had lower blood sugar levels and reported less hunger compared to women who ate a breakfast that contained the same amount of carbohydrates but no nuts.

Peanut butter is a good source of magnesium, which is an essential nutrient for people with diabetes. Continuous periods of high blood sugar may reduce magnesium levels in the body. Low magnesium levels are linked to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

5. Reducing the risk of breast disease

Eating peanut butter, especially from a young age, may reduce the risk of benign breast disease (BBD), which increases the risk of breast cancer.

A study in the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, reports that eating peanut butter and nuts at any age may result in a lower risk of developing BDD by age 30.

The researchers examined the data for over 9,000 schoolgirls in America. Other types of pulses, such as beans and soy, along with vegetable fats and other nuts, may also offer protection from BBD.

Even those with a family history of breast cancer had a significantly lower risk if they ate peanut butter and these other foods.

Peanut butter benefits and nutritional profile

The table below provides a detailed nutritional profile of 2 tbsp of smooth peanut butter:

Calories 188
Protein 7.02 g
Saturated fats 3.05 g
Monounsaturated fats 6.63 g
Polyunsaturated fats 3.63 g
Carbohydrates 7.67 g
Fiber 1.80 g
Sugars 2.08 g
Calcium 17 mg
Iron 0.69 mg
Magnesium 57 mg
Phosphorus 107 mg
Potassium 189 mg
Sodium 152 mg
Zinc 0.85 mg
Niacin 4.21 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.18 mg
Vitamin E 1.90 mg

Peanut allergies

Peanuts and other nuts are common allergens, with a peanut or tree nut allergy affecting over 3 million Americans, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Those with a known peanut allergy should avoid peanut butter and foods containing the nuts.

The NIH also note that just 20 percent of those with an allergy will eventually outgrow the allergy and stop having reactions to nuts.

Which peanut butter is best?

When selecting a peanut butter product, look for one that contains just peanuts and few or no other ingredients.

Some peanut butter brands will contain other ingredients, such as sugar, salt, and added oils. Avoid these where possible. Try adding a little honey to peanut butter dishes as a sweetener instead.

It is normal for pure peanut butter to separate into solid and liquid form. Stir the contents thoroughly, and the consistency will return to normal.

People can buy natural peanut butter in health food stores and online.

To stop the peanut butter going off, store it in the refrigerator.

How to add peanut butter to your diet

Peanut butter, rice cakes and banana
Peanut butter is a healthful option when enjoyed as part of a balanced diet.

Eating more peanut butter is easy. Sometimes, it can be too easy — so be sure to be mindful of your intake to avoid eating more calories than you may need in a day. Remember 2 tbsp of peanut butter is close to 200 calories.

People can include peanut butter in their diets by:

  • Making a classic peanut butter and jelly sandwich, using whole fruit, low sugar jelly, and whole-grain bread.
  • Spreading peanut butter on rice cakes and top with banana slices.
  • Whipping up a Thai peanut dressing for salads, using lime juice, rice vinegar, soy sauce, and honey.
  • Adding a spoonful of the nut butter to smoothies to make them more filling.
  • Dipping apple and pear slices into peanut butter for an easy snack.
  • Stirring peanut butter into yogurts or warm oatmeal.

Summary

The benefits of peanut butter indicate at that peanut butter can be a healthful option when people enjoy it as part of a balanced diet. It is rich in several nutrients, including protein and magnesium, which may help protect the heart and manage blood sugar and body weight.

However, eating too much peanut butter can increase a person’s daily intake of saturated fat, sodium, and calories.

Those who have a peanut allergy should avoid peanut butter as it could trigger a potentially deadly reaction.

Exercise can become habit

Make exercise a habit today. Once you’ve fallen out of the habit of exercising on a daily or weekly basis, getting back into the routine can be brutal. Even when you know working out would lead to more energy and a toned beach body, it can be hard to make yourself get off the couch and head back to the gym or yoga studio.  Sometimes you just need a little inspiration to take that first step in the right direction. Reminding yourself of the many health benefits of exercise, setting weight-loss goals, or picturing how you want to look in your wedding dress or tuxedo can help get you in the right mindset. Then it’s all about finding time to fit in workouts and sticking to that schedule as much as possible to build new habits.

How to get there

Here is a great example of how to make exercise a habit that needs to be understood by those reading this post.  I have a friend who within two years went from 240 pounds to 180 – a net loss of 60 pounds! How did he do it? He made drastic changes to his lifestyle, both in diet and exercise.  He did not kill himself in the gym, merely got on the treadmill and power walked his way slowly until he was able to do 50 minutes at a 12-degree incline, peaking at 4.2 miles per hour. He religiously did this three times a week. It became such a habit that he was able to incorporate it into his weekly routine and it became second nature.  He stopped drinking beer and all sugary beverages.  He adopted a diet that was more agreeable to his body.

Hurricanes can make one exercise without knowing it

Then, a category five hurricane hit and the gym closed for a month.  All of the dietary sacrifices went out the window!  Due to food shortages at supermarkets, he was forced to now eat processed meats, canned goods, and other foods which had been given up long ago.  Bananas, apples, oranges, nuts, vegetables, lean meats and other essential food groups were in short supply.   The days were extremely hot and humid, temperatures peaking at 106 degrees due to the deforestation caused by the hurricane.  Potable and drinking water was also a precious commodity.

So how did he stay in shape? There was plenty of manual work to do during the recovery after the hurricane!  There was plenty of debris to collect and carry away. Gasoline and diesel containers had to be negotiated every day, sometimes several times per day.  The work was intense and sweating profuse.  His place of work was flooded and he spent many hours bailing out water, throwing away more debris until mountains of trash accumulated outside his workplace. When he was able to work out, he followed these simple exercises which did not require his trusted treadmill.  The family organized itself and cooked on a small gas stove.  Small generators were obtained to keep refrigerators running a few hours per day.

When all was said and done, he had actually lost more weight due to the unintended exercise.  Perhaps the anxiety of a bad situation and the survival mode one had to go into was a factor. But this is just an extreme situation, which shows that it can be done!

Make a deal with yourself to start todexerciseay. Go on a short run or a long walk, sign up for a weekly kickboxing or yoga class, or turn on a brief fitness video. Carving out a few minutes per day is the perfect way to ease yourself into a regular routine again. Before you know it, you’ll be pushing yourself to work out a few minutes longer or run another mile farther. You may even find that you crave those workouts and the “me time” and chance to clear your mind that they provide.  Even in times of distress, our bodies will continue to try to accommodate routines that benefit our overall well-being.

 

Natural colon cleansing

This post explores the concept of natural colon cleansing. A colon cleanse is a popular alternative remedy that some people claim removes waste and toxins from the colon. However, there is little scientific evidence to support the use of natural colon cleansing routines, except for those that doctors prescribe.

Most of what researchers know about safe colon cleansing comes from studies that aim to find ways to improve the colonoscopy procedure rather than to boost energy levels or treat intestinal problems.

People may refer to colon cleansing methods by different names, including:

  • bowel cleanses
  • detoxes
  • flushes
  • juice diets

Most colon cleansing products supposedly help detox the colon or remove harmful substances, such as mucus and dry stool. Some people also use colon cleanses to help relieve constipation.

In this article, we discuss some popular colon cleansing methods and the science behind them. We also consider their potential benefits and risks.

Water

Woman drinking water as part of natural colon cleanseDrinking water regularly can naturally cleanse the colon.

Using water is one of the easiest and safest natural colon cleansing available, and the easiest way to cleanse the colon naturally. Water moistens stool and gives it bulk, facilitating its passage through the colon.

A person who is dehydrated will have fewer bowel movements because their body is trying to retain water. It will reabsorb water from the bowel, which results in the stool becoming dry, hard, and difficult to pass.

Everyone’s daily hydration needs are different, but it is vital to drink plenty of water throughout the day.

Other beverages, including caffeinated ones, contribute toward a person’s daily water intake, but plain water is the best option as it does not contain any calories.

In a 2013 study, researchers in Jordan found that drinking more than four cups of water daily decreased the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results were not statistically significant.

The same study identified constipation as a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer. Drinking at least eight glasses of water a day can help prevent constipation, and it offers many other health benefits too.

Fruit and vegetable juice

Raw fruit and vegetable juices contain many elements that may help cleanse the colon, including fiber, phytochemicals (beneficial plant chemicals), and natural sugars that act as laxatives, such as sorbitol and fructose.

Proponents of juice cleanses recommend the following types of juice:

  • apple, including the peel
  • prune
  • pear
  • banana
  • kiwi
  • grape
  • plum
  • persimmon
  • lemon

Some colon cleanse plans recommend consuming only fluids for a few days at a time to help cleanse the colon and digestive tract.

Most health authorities recommend against juice cleanses. Raw fruit juices can contain compounds that are hard on the kidneys and liver. Without any treatment to kill harmful bacteria and viruses, these juices can also make people ill. They may pose significant dangers for those with medical conditions, such as diabetes.

It is best to consume fruit and vegetable juices in the form of smoothies to keep all the fiber, water, and nutrients intact.

Fiber

Natural colon cleansing found in fiber adds bulk to stool, which reduces the time it spends sitting in the colon and increases the number of bowel movements that a person has. Many natural, whole foods are rich in fiber, including:

  • nuts
  • beans
  • seeds
  • berries
  • whole grains and cereals

People who find it difficult to get enough fiber through their diet can try taking fiber supplements. Popular fiber supplements include:

  • psyllium (Metamucil)
  • polycarbophil tablets (FiberCon)
  • methylcellulose

Fermented foods aid natural colon cleansing

Baked tempeh on tray
Tempeh is a fermented food that may benefit gut health.

Fermented foods often contain high levels of probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that contribute to gut health.

These bacteria help the bowels move stool out of the colon regularly and reduce the risk of gas, bloating, constipation, and infection.

Common fermented foods that contain probiotics include:

  • yogurt and Greek yogurt
  • apple cider vinegar
  • kefir
  • skyr
  • kimchi
  • sauerkraut
  • pickles
  • miso
  • tempeh
  • kombucha
  • beer and cider
  • some types of cheese

Research suggests that probiotics may help prevent and possibly treat colon cancer, but researchers agree that more studies are necessary to understand these effects. A healthy gut biome offers numerous other benefits for overall health and immune function.

Resistant starches

Some foods contain resistant starches, which are types of sugar that are difficult for the body to break down. These starches remain mostly undigested and become bulk in the stool.

The more bulk there is in the stool, the sooner the bowel is stimulated into action, possibly helping cleanse the colon.

Foods high in resistant starches include:

  • potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams
  • sugar beets
  • sugar cane
  • sweet corn
  • green bananas
  • beer and cider
  • vegetable stems, tubers, and roots
  • rice
  • buckwheat and millet
  • al dente pasta
  • white bread
  • cornflakes and muesli

Unlike other starches, digesting resistant starches produces compounds that research shows may help:

  • prevent colon cancer
  • improve macronutrient regulation
  • alter hormone levels, potentially improving mental and physical health
  • prevent or control diabetes
  • prevent or control obesity

Lemon juice

Regularly drinking lemon juice can have a positive effect on digestive health and help natural colon cleansing. It seems that people experience the most benefit when they drink it on an empty stomach, which allows the compounds in the lemon to interact more easily with the gut mucosa.

Having a clean colon is crucial for certain screening tests, such as colonoscopies. Most people receiving colonoscopies have to consume a colon cleansing preparation the night before the procedure.

In a 2015 study on colonoscopies, one group of participants received a preparation of ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, in addition to the standard fluid mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The participants who took vitamin C had better bowel preparation than those in the other groups.

Lemon juice is very high in vitamin C so it may be an effective natural colon cleanser.

Herbal teas

Some herbal teas used in natural colon cleansing may be beneficial for digestive health.

Australian research from 2014 found an association between herbal tea consumption and a lower risk of colon cancer.

Other natural teas, such as ginger or lemon tea, may also help digestion.

Possible benefits of colon cleanses

Senior couple smiling outdoors jogging.
People who support colon cleanses claim they can improve energy levels, though there is no scientific evidence to prove this.

There are currently no proven benefits of colon cleanses, natural or otherwise. However, people who promote colon cleanses claim that they provide major health benefits, including:

  • increasing energy
  • removing toxins
  • improving liver function
  • boosting the immune system
  • aiding weight loss
  • relieving bloating, cramps, and gas
  • reducing the risk of colon cancer
  • improving mood

Safety and risks

Some of the potential risks of colon cleansing include:

  • weakness
  • irritability
  • electrolyte imbalance and dehydration
  • vomiting and nausea
  • abdominal cramps
  • dizziness and fainting
  • loss of healthful gut microflora and increased risk of infection
  • diarrhea
  • bowel ulcerations, which are open cuts and sores
  • bowel infection
  • kidney damage and failure

People with preexisting bowel conditions should avoid bowel cleansing methods unless a doctor performs or prescribes them.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not regulate natural colon cleanse products. The FDA have also taken legal action against companies who were using unproven medical claims to promote cleanse products, stating that they could reduce the risk of cancer or treat serious medical conditions.

The U.S. National Institutes of Health also point out several possible risks of cleanses, including:

  • diarrhea, which could lead to dehydration
  • bacterial infection from unpasteurized juice
  • lack of nutrients
  • headaches
  • weakness and fainting

People with kidney conditions should avoid drinking large quantities of juice because it can contain too much oxalate, which can cause kidney problems.

People with diabetes and other metabolic conditions should also avoid detoxes or extreme diets and instead follow a healthful, doctor-recommended diet.

Severely restricting calorie intake, which is often part of colon cleanses, can also be damaging to a person’s overall health. It rarely contributes to long-term weight loss or well-being.

 

Low-carb diet and permanent weight loss

Low-carb diet can help you lose weight and keep it off permanently.
“The largest and longest feeding study to test the ‘carbohydrate-insulin model'” concludes that a lower carb intake burns more calories, which may help people maintain weight loss over a longer period of time.
person eating a steak with low carb diet
Eating a high-quality, low-carb diet may help us stave off weight gain for longer.

Cara Ebbeling, Ph.D., together with Dr. David Ludwig — both at Boston Children’s Hospital in Massachusetts — led the new study, which now appears in the BMJ.

As they explain, when we lose weight, the body adapts by lowering its energy expenditure. In other words, it burns fewer calories.

This way, the metabolism protects itself against long-term weight changes.    Low-carb diet can help lose weight permanently

However, when the weight loss is intentional, this adaptive response can be frustrating for dieters, as it leads to weight regain.

Although weight gain after dieting is a well-known phenomenon, researchers do not know much about how different diets affect the way the metabolism responds to them.

The so-called carbohydrate-insulin model, however, suggests one such mechanism. It posits that highly processed foods high in sugar drive hormonal changes that increase the appetite and lead to weight gain.

“According to this model,” explains Dr. Ludwig, “the processed carbohydrates that flooded our diets during the low-fat era have raised insulin levels, driving fat cells to store excessive calories. With fewer calories available to the rest of the body, hunger increases and metabolism slows — a recipe for weight gain.”

In this context, Ebbeling, Dr. Ludwig, and their colleagues decided to investigate the effects that different diets had on the metabolism. Specifically, they looked at the carb-to-fat ratio in varying diets over a 20-week period.

Studying carb intake, weight, and calories in low-carb diet

The researchers examined the effect of different diets on 234 adults aged 18–65 whose body mass index (BMI) was at least 25. As part of the study, the participants had also adhered to a weight loss plan for 10 weeks.

By the end of the trial, 164 participants had achieved their weight loss goal of around 12 percent of their total weight. Then, they adhered to either a high-, moderate-, or low-carb diet for 20 weeks, allowing the researchers to examine if they managed to maintain the weight loss.

The high-carb diet was composed of 60 percent high-quality carbs, the moderate-carb one had 40 percent carbs, and the low-carb diet had 20 percent carbs. The diets also minimized sugar intake and used whole grains.

During this time, the scientists measured the participants’ weight and tracked the number of calories they burned. They also examined the participants’ insulin secretion and metabolic hormones.

‘A 20-pound weight loss after 3 years’

At the end of the study period, people in the low-carb group burned significantly more calories than those who had been on a high-carb diet.

Specifically, participants who were on a low-carb diet burned around 250 kilocalories more per day than those who were on a high-carb diet.

Ebbeling explains, “If this difference persists — and we saw no drop-off during the 20 weeks of our study — the effect would translate into about a 20-pound weight loss after 3 years, with no change in calorie intake.”

The results also indicated that for participants who had the highest insulin secretion, the impact of a low-carb diet was even more significant: low-carb dieters burned 400 calories more per day than high-carb dieters.

“A low glycemic load, high-fat diet,” explain the authors, “might facilitate weight loss maintenance beyond the conventional focus on restricting energy intake and encouraging physical activity.”

Ebbeling says, “Our observations challenge the belief that all calories are the same to the body.”

This is the largest and longest feeding study to test the ‘carbohydrate-insulin model,’ which provides a new way to think about and treat obesity.”

Dr. David Ludwig

Obesity versus Depression

Is depression the cause of obesity or is obesity the cause of depression? Although depression and obesity often come hand in hand, the relationship between the two is difficult to tease apart. A new, large-scale genomic study adds new evidence.

Pensive woman ponders obesity
The relationship between depression and obesity is complex.

Both excessive weight and depression are significant global health problems. According to the authors of the latest research, they cost the global economy trillions of dollars every year.

Previous studies have noted that depression often appears in individuals who are overweight or obese.

However, observational studies have not been able to demonstrate whether obesity causes depression, as there are many competing factors to consider.

For instance, being grossly overweight is a risk factor for a number of conditions, and so it might be that dealing with other health issues increases the likelihood of becoming depressed, rather than the obesity being the cause.

Some researchers have argued that the relationship might be the other way around: depression is a risk for obesity.

Others believe that depression and obesity exacerbate each other. For instance, obesity might make depression more likely to occur initially, but once depressive symptoms arise, they might compound the condition by making it harder for the individual to exercise. In these cases motivation of the individual would be a great place to start.

Obesity and depression revisited

To gain a better understanding of this complicated relationship, researchers from the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom joined forces with scientists from the University of South Australia. They published their results in the International Journal of Epidemiology this week.

“Obesity and depression are both global health problems that have a major impact on lives and are costly to health services,” explains lead author Dr. Jess Tyrrell. “We’ve long known there’s a link between the two, yet it’s unclear whether obesity causes depression or vice versa, and also whether it’s being overweight in itself or the associated health problems that can cause depression.”

The study used genetic data to inspect the causal relationship between excessive weight and depression. The team wanted to understand whether a higher body mass index (BMI) was related to an increased risk of depression without the presence of other health conditions.

The researchers used genetic and medical data from 48,000 people with depression and compared it with in excess of 290,000 controls, making it the largest study to address this question to date.

Psychological impact to blame?

Overall, as expected, a higher BMI was associated with higher odds of depression. This association was stronger in women than men, confirming earlier findings. Women with a high BMI had a 21 percent increase in risk, compared with 8 percent in men.

By investigating individuals with genes predisposing them to obesity but without ones that predispose them to metabolic conditions, such as diabetes — referred to as a “favorable metabolic profile” — the researchers could separate out the psychological component of obesity.

In their analysis, they accounted for a range of variables that could influence the results, including socioeconomic position, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity.

They found that individuals with a favorable metabolic profile were just as likely to develop depression as individuals with obesity that carried genes predisposing them to develop metabolic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in women.

To double-check their findings, they also took data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. And their second analysis returned similar results, adding further weight to their conclusions.

“Our robust genetic analysis concludes that the psychological impact of being obese is likely to cause depression.” Dr. Jess Tyrrell

These results provide vital insight, as Dr. Tyrrell explains, “This is important to help target efforts to reduce depression, which makes it much harder for people to adopt [healthful] lifestyle habits.”

However, the relationship between the two is convoluted, and questions remain. As the authors write, “we have not ruled [out] a possible bidirectional causal relationship between higher BMI and depression […] Further research is required to explore the causal role of depression on body mass index and obesity.”

Because depression and obesity can have profound impacts on individuals and society at large, scientific attention is likely to continue to look at their links.

Move More for Better Health

Please move more, even just a little bit, say new Physical Activity Guidelines.

Bicycling allows one to move more

It’s now easier than ever to get your recommended amount of exercise, according to new physical activity

guidelines released Monday by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). While the total number of minutes per week has not changed, one important detail has: Now, the government says, every little bit of activity—even just one or two minutes at a time—counts. In other words: Please move more!

The update, officially known as the second edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, was announced at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions meeting. Previously, the guidelines stated that physical activity must be done in increments of 10 minutes or more to count toward your weekly total.

“Some physical activity is better than none,” the updated guidelines state. “Adults who sit less and do any amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity gain some health benefits.”

The change is important, experts say, because many Americans simply aren’t meeting the guidelines set for adults—to get at least 150 to 300 minutes of moderate physical activity, or 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous activity, per week. According to research published in JAMA with the guidelines, only 26% of men and 19% of women are getting that much.

RELATED: Five exercises which burn more calories

The guidelines (original and updated) recommend that children ages 6 to 17 get 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day, but only 20% of adolescents meet the recommendations for their age groups. And now, for the first time, the guidelines make a recommendation for children ages 3 to 5—that they should be physically active throughout the day.

“The new guidelines demonstrate that, based on the best science, everyone can dramatically improve their health just by moving more—anytime, anywhere, and by any means that gets you active,” said Admiral Brett P. Giroir, MD, assistant secretary for health, in an HHS press release. The guidelines cite research suggesting that an estimated $117 billion in annual health care costs, and about 10% of premature deaths, are associated with not meeting these daily and weekly activity goals.

They also list several benefits of physical activity that have been discovered since the initial Physical Activity Guidelines were introduced in 2008. These include improved bone health, weight status, and cognitive function for children; reduced risk of eight types of cancers (up from two in 2008); brain health benefits; reduced anxiety and depression risk; improved sleep quality; and reduced risk of falls for older adults. Physical activity can also reduce the risk of health complications for pregnant women and people with chronic medical conditions.

Ideally, the guidelines say, adults should get a mix of different types of activity, including moderate aerobic activity (like walking), vigorous aerobic activity (like running), and muscle-strengthening activities (like weight training). All three of these activities are good for your muscles and for your heart, research shows. For example, a recent University of Iowa study published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise found that lifting weights can reduce risk of heart attack or stroke by 40 to 70%, and it took less than one hour a week to see the biggest benefits.

RELATED: Make exercising a habit today

The new guidelines also acknowledge that there are immediate health benefits attainable from a single bout of activity—such as reduced anxiety and blood pressure, improved sleep quality, and improved insulin sensitivity. Overall, the guideline authors wrote in JAMA, the evidence is clear: “Physical activity fosters normal growth and development and can make people feel better, function better, sleep better, and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases.”

Of course, most health experts have been singing this tune for quite a while—and we’ve long been proponents of the idea that it is important to move more as every little bit of exercise counts. That’s why it’s so important to sit less, at work and at home; to take more steps every day; move more and to find creative ways to sneak in physical activity, even when you’re not doing an official heart-pumping, sweat-inducing workout.

Nuts and your health

Two new studies suggest that a small daily serving of nuts may benefit overall metabolic health and keep off the weight we tend to gain as we enter adulthood.
serving of nuts
A daily serving may prevent weight gain and improve metabolic health in the long run, two new studies suggest.

From providing cardiovascular benefits to potentially improving fertility, and even boosting memory and intelligence, the health benefits of nuts are numerous — and no wonder.  They are packed with unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, protein, and other beneficial chemicals, which may all contribute to good health.

However, can these dried seeds aid weight loss? Are certain types better able to support good metabolism?

Two new studies delved deeper into these questions. The authors will present the findings at Scientific Sessions 2018, a conference to be held by the American Heart Association (AHA) in Chicago, IL.

The first study — led by Xiaoran Liu, Ph.D., a research associate in the nutrition department of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, MA — looked at the long-term effects of nuts and peanuts on body weight.

The second study examined the effects of Brazil nuts on satiety, blood sugar, and insulin response.

It was supervised by Mee Young Hong, Ph.D., a registered dietician and a professor in the School of Exercise & Nutritional Sciences at San Diego State University in California.

Nuts prevent weight gain in adulthood

The first study explored consumption in:

  • 25,394 healthy men who had taken part in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study
  • 53,541 women who had participated in the Nurses’ Health Study
  • 47,255 women who had taken part in the Nurses’ Health Study II

The three groups had filled in food frequency questionnaires once every 4 years.

The researchers discovered that replacing foods that had less nutritional value with a 1-ounce serving of nuts and peanuts lowered the risk of weight gain and obesity over the 4-year follow-up intervals.

More specifically, replacing a serving of red meat, processed meat, french fries, desserts, or potato chips with a serving of nuts correlated with significantly less weight gain in the long run.

The study’s first author comments on the findings, saying, “People often see nuts as food items high in fat and calories, so they hesitate to consider them as healthy snacks, but they are in fact associated with less weight gain and wellness.”

“Once people reach adulthood, they start to gradually gain about 1 pound a year of weight, which seems small. But if you consider gaining one pound over 20 years, it accumulates to a lot of weight gain,” Liu notes.

Adding 1 ounce of nuts to your diet in place of less healthy foods — such as red or processed meat, french fries or sugary snacks — may help prevent that slow, gradual weight gain after you enter adulthood and reduce the risk of obesity-related cardiovascular diseases.”

Xiaoran Liu, Ph.D.

Brazil nuts benefit insulin, glucose responses

In the second study, researchers examined the effects of consuming the Brazil variety in 22 healthy adult participants, 20 of whom were women.

The participants added either 36 grams of pretzels or 20 grams of Brazil nuts to their normal diet in two trials. At least 48 hours passed between trials.

The Brazil nuts and pretzels contained about the same number of calories and the same amount of sodium. Both triggered a sense of fullness, but the Brazil type contributed to an increased feeling of satiety.

Forty minutes after the participants had consumed their snacks, the researchers found that the pretzels had caused significant increases in blood sugar and insulin levels, whereas the Brazil nuts had not.

The study’s senior author explains, “While both Brazil nuts and pretzels increased a sense of fullness after they were eaten, eating Brazil nuts stabilized postprandial (after eating) blood glucose and insulin levels, which may be beneficial in preventing diabetes and weight gain.”

Although the study was observational, the researchers speculate that selenium may explain the benefits of Brazil nuts. Prior studies had linked the mineral with better insulin and blood sugar responses, and Brazil nuts are rich in selenium.

However, the researchers caution that because only 9 percent of participants were men, the study’s findings may not apply to all.

Our study allows researchers and clinicians to consider the possible beneficial role of Brazil nuts to help people feel full and maintain a healthy level of glucose, reducing the risk of obesity and diabetes.”

Mee Young Hong, Ph.D.

Body Mass Index Measurement

This post deals with measuring Body Mass Index (BMI) for adults, children, and teens. Body mass index, or BMI, is a measure of body size. It combines a person’s weight with their height. The results of a BMI measurement can give an idea about whether a person has the correct weight for their height. 

BMI (Body Mass Index) is a screening tool that can indicate whether a person is underweight or if they have a healthy weight, excess weight, or obesity. If a person’s Body Mass Index is outside of the healthy range, their health risks may increase significantly.

Carrying too much weight can lead to a variety of health conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular problems.  In a previous post, we offered five simple exercises which can help a person achieve some of their weight goals.

A weigh that is too low can increase the risk of malnutrition, osteoporosis, and anemia. The doctor will make suitable recommendations.

Body Mass Index does not measure body fat directly, and it does not account for age, sex, ethnicity, or muscle mass in adults.

However, it uses standard weight status categories that can help doctors to track weight status across populations and identify potential issues in individuals.

BMI (Body Mass Index) in adults

Body Mass Index calculator shows healthy weight
A BMI chart or calculator can show a person if they have a healthy weight.

Calculating BMI involves measuring a person’s height and body weight.

 

Metric

  • To calculate BMI in metric units, use the following method: BMI = kg/m2
  • So, to calculate an adult’s BMI: Divide their weight in kilograms (kg) by the square of their height in meters (m2)

Since most people measure height in centimeters (cm), divide height in cm by 100 to get height in meters.

Imperial

  • When using imperial units, the formula is: BMI = lbs x 703/in2
  • In other words: Multiply a person’s weight in pounds (lbs) by 703. Then divide by their height in inches, squared (in2)

To avoid using the math, a person can use a calculator or a chart to find their BMI.

BMI calculator

Enter height or weight in either imperial or metric measurements to find your BMI.

1) Metric BMI Calculator

2) Imperial BMI Calculator

BMI charts

People can also work out their BMI using a chart. Click here to see a chart provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

Locate your height in inches on the side of the chart, then look across to find your body weight in pounds. Scan to the top to see if the result corresponds to a normal weight, overweight, or obesity.

Understanding the results

The following table shows the standard weight status categories associated with BMI ranges for adults.

BMI Weight status
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5–24.9 Healthy
25.0–29.9 Overweight
30.0 and above Obese

BMI of less than 18.5

A BMI of less than 18.5 indicates that you are underweight, so you may need to put on some weight. You are recommended to ask your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

BMI of 18.5–24.9

A BMI of 18.5-24.9 indicates that you are at a healthy weight for your height. By maintaining a healthy weight, you lower your risk of developing serious health problems.

BMI of 25–29.9

A BMI of 25-29.9 indicates that you are slightly overweight. You may be advised to lose some weight for health reasons. You are recommended to talk to your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

BMI of over 30

A BMI of over 30 indicates that you are heavily overweight. Your health may be at risk if you do not lose weight. You are recommended to talk to your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

BMI in children and teens

In adults, BMI values are not linked to age and are the same for both sexes.

However, measuring Body Mass Index in children and teens is slightly different. Girls and boys develop at different rates and have different amounts of body fat at different ages. For this reason, BMI measurements during childhood and adolescence take age and sex into consideration.

Doctors and other health professionals do not categorize children by healthy weight ranges because:

  • they change with each month of age
  • male and female body types change at different rates
  • they change as the child grows taller

Doctors calculate BMI for children and teens in the same way as they do for adults, by measuring height and weight. Then they locate the BMI number and person’s age on a sex-specific BMI-for-age chart. This will indicate whether the child is within a healthy range.

Calculator and charts for child and teen Body Mass Index

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have produced a calculator that provides BMI and the corresponding BMI-for-age percentile on a CDC growth chart for children and teens.

First, click here for the calculator.

Next, use the charts to see if a child’s weight is suitable for their age.

Click here for the charts:

What do the results mean?

The following categories explain the meaning of the results:

Weight status category Percentile range
Underweight Below the 5th percentile
Healthy weight 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile
Overweight 85th to less than the 95th percentile
Obesity Equal to or greater than the 95th percentile

How doctors use BMI

BMI is not accurate enough to use as a diagnostic tool, but it can screen for potential weight problems in adults and children.

If someone has a high or low BMI, a doctor or other healthcare professional might then consider other factors, such as:

  • skinfold thickness measurements, which indicate how much fat is in the body in adults and children
  • evaluations of diet and physical activity
  • discuss any family history of cardiovascular disease and other health problems
  • recommend other appropriate health screenings

The doctor or healthcare professional can then make diet and exercise recommendations based on these results.

Health risks of extra weight

Excess weight has the following effects on the body:

  • It increases how hard the heart has to work.
  • It raises blood pressure, blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
  • It lowers high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or good cholesterol levels.
  • It can make diabetes and other health problems more likely.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), carrying extra weight can increase the risk of the following conditions:

  • hypertension, or high blood pressure
  • dyslipidemia, which involves high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides
  • type 2 diabetes
  • coronary heart disease
  • stroke
  • gallbladder disease
  • osteoarthritis
  • sleep apnea and respiratory problems
  • some cancers, including endometrial, breast and colon cancer

Carrying extra weight as a child or teenager can also pose significant health risks, both during childhood and into adulthood.

As with adult obesity, childhood obesity increases the risk of various health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

The American Heart Association (AHA), point out that children with a high BMI also have a higher risk of:

Benefits of a healthy weight

Walking with the family helps Body Mass Index levels
Walking with family or friends can be an enjoyable way of keeping fit and preventing unwanted weight gain.

Apart from reducing the risk of the health conditions, maintaining a healthy weight offers additional benefits:

  • fewer joint and muscle pains
  • increased energy and ability to join in more activities
  • improved regulation of bodily fluids and blood pressure
  • reduced burden on the heart and circulatory system
  • improved sleep patterns

Other measures of a healthy body

BMI is a useful tool, but it cannot identify whether a person’s weight is made up of muscle or fat.

For example, an athlete with a lot of muscle tissue may have a higher BMI than a person who is not very active. But, this does not mean that the athlete is overweight or unhealthy.

In addition, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure are more likely to occur in people who have additional fat — known as visceral fat — around their middle rather than their hips.

Other measures of body size include waist-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and body composition, which measures body fat and lean body mass. These measurement systems focus more on the amount of fat a person has and its distribution around the body.

Together with BMI, these additional measures can help to assess more accurately the health risks associated with an individual’s weight.

Takeaway

Body Mass Index can be a useful screening tool for predicting certain health risks. However, people should use it with caution, as it does not take other factors — such as activity levels and body composition — into account.

For children and teens, it is important to include their age and sex when taking a BMI measurement, because their bodies continuously change as they develop.

BMI calculators and charts

BMI Calculators and Charts enable health professionals to evaluate the optimum weight of individuals. Body mass index, or BMI, is one way a person can check if their weight is healthy or not. BMI takes both height and weight into consideration.

Carrying too much or too little weight can increase a person’s risk of health problems, either now or in the future.

BMI is not the only factor that affects this risk. Other tools for assessing whether a person has a healthy weight include waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and body-fat percentage.

However, BMI is a useful starting point. This page provides some tools for people to work out their BMI.

BMI calculators

These BMI calculators and charts can give an indication of whether a person’s weight may affect their risk of health problems.

We are publishing the calculators here courtesy of The Calculator Site. There are two calculation options available: Metric and imperial.

1) Metric BMI Calculators

2) Imperial BMI Calculators

BMI charts

To use the charts below, find your weight in pounds along the top and your height in feet and inches down the side. Then look across to find your BMI.

There are two charts. If a person’s weight is 200 pounds (lb) or under, they should use the first chart. If their weight is over 200 lb, they should look at the second one.

The shaded areas correspond to BMI values that indicate either a healthy weight, excess weight, or obesity.

In addition, researchers and clinicians divide obesity into three categories.

  • Class I: BMI is 30 to 34.9
  • Class II: BMI is 35 to 39.9
  • Class III: BMI is 40 and above

The charts are an adaptation of the Adult body mass index (BMI) chart. created by the University of Vermont, in the United States.


Body mass index chart: Weight from 95–245 pounds

bmi chart underweight to overweight
Adult BMI chart showing ranges “under healthy weight: BMI

Body mass index chart: Weight from 250–400 pounds

obese bmi chart
Adult BMI chart showing ranges “obese I: BMI 30–34.9,” “obese II: BMI 35–39.9” and “obese III: BMI? 40.”

These figures are only a guide. The BMI Calculators will not determine whether a person has an ideal body weight, but it can help to show if an individual’s weight is increasing their risk for disease.

A person who is very fit, for example, an Olympic athlete, may have a high BMI.

This does not necessarily mean that they are overweight. The excess weight, in this case, may be due to increased muscle mass.

BMI categories

The following table shows the standard weight status categories associated with BMI ranges for adults:

BMI Weight status
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5–24.9 Healthy
25.0–29.9 Overweight
30.0 and above Obese

BMI of less than 18.5

A BMI of less than 18.5 indicates that you are underweight, so you may need to put on some weight. You are recommended to ask your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

BMI of 18.5–24.9

A BMI of 18.5–24.9 indicates that you are at a healthy weight for your height. By maintaining a healthy weight, you lower your risk of developing serious health problems.

BMI of 25–29.9

A BMI of 25–29.9 indicates that you are slightly overweight. You may be advised to lose some weight for health reasons. You are recommended to talk to your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

BMI of over 30

A BMI of over 30 indicates that you are heavily overweight. Your health may be at risk if you do not lose weight. You are recommended to talk to your doctor or a dietitian for advice.

Health risks

A healthy weight can help prevent a range of diseases and health conditions.

People with a BMI of 30 or more have a higher risk than others of diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, high blood pressure, colorectal cancer, for example. Some of these can be life-threatening.

Having a BMI of under 18.5 can increase the risk of malnutrition, osteoporosis, anemia, and a range of problems that can result from various nutrient deficiencies. It can also be a sign of a hormonal, digestive, or other problem.

Varying cutoff points

Evidence suggests that the associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and body fat distribution may differ across populations, due to variations in race and ethnicity.

A Brazilian study, published in 2017, looked at the correlation between BMI and body-fat percentage in 856 adult men and women.

They concluded that to predict obesity-type body-fat percentage:

  • The standard BMI threshold of 29.9 kg/m2 was appropriate for men.
  • A more suitable cutoff point for women appeared to be 24.9 kg/m2.

In 2017, Korean researchers pointed out that people in the Asia-Pacific region often have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a BMI below the existing WHO cutoff point.

In Korea, they added, there is evidence that almost twice as many people have features of metabolic obesity but a normal weight compared with the U.S.

In 2010, results of a study published in The International Journal of Obesity found that Asian Americans within the healthy weight range were more likely to have symptoms of metabolic syndrome than their non-Hispanic white counterparts.

The following table, published in 2006 by the World Health Organization (WHO), shows some comparisons and cutoff points that may apply.

Doctors may use these variations when treating or advising specific people.

Classifications BMI (kg/m2)
principal cutoff points
BMI (kg/m2)
additional cutoff points
Underweight
Severe thinness
Moderate thinness 16.00–16.99 16.00–16.99
Mild thinness 17.00–18.49 17.00–18.49
Normal range 18.50–24.99 18.50–22.99
23.00–24.99
Overweight ?25.00 ?25.00
Pre-obese 25.00–29.99 25.00–27.49
27.50–29.99
Obese ?30.00 ?30.00
Obese class I 30.00–34.99 30.00–32.49
32.50–34.99
Obese class II 35.00–39.99 35.00–37.49
37.50–39.99
Obese class III ?40.00 ?40.00

Takeaway

BMI is a useful tool that gives a general idea about whether a person’s weight is healthy or not. However, it is a simple tool that does not tell the whole story about people’s individual weight and health risks.

Anyone who is concerned about their weight should speak to a doctor, who may also consider the individual’s body-fat distribution and the ratio of their waist size to their height. A health professional will also be able to offer advice to suit every individual.

Dietary supplement brand use

Generational preferences appear to affect engagement with dietary supplement brands.

Conducted by Chicago-based CBD Marketing, the new research indicated that for supplement brands to be most effective they cannot assume one message or marketing tactic works for all consumer ages and types, even if the product(s) have efficacy across multiple age categories.

“It’s clear from our research that the idea that ‘one size fits all’ for product marketing—including social media marketing—is ludicrous,” said Lori Colman, CBD Marketing’s Co-CEO, who presented the findings at this week’s SupplySide West in Las Vegas.

“Our study proves you can’t assume everyone buys your product for the same reason. Products, including supplements, are purchased for different reasons by different age, demographic or user groups. Marketing needs to resonate with, and reflect, audience-specific needs in order to be effective.”

Research details?

Almost half a million social media posts were analyzed, with the data related to dietary supplement engagement interest across three age-segmented groups: Boomers (age 55 +); Gen X (age 35–54) and Millennials (age 18–34). The social posts were generated by men (44%) and women (56%), with Millennials responsible for the greatest volume of posts at 47% of the total.

According to CBD Marketing, all these groups talk about and seek recommendations for dietary supplements on social media platforms, making analyzing social media content a highly reliable barometer of consumer opinions.

Boomers?

Breaking the data down by age group revealed that Boomers represent almost 50% of all consumer spending, and that they spend an average of 11 hours per week online, researching and shopping.

A key focus for this age group is healthy aging, with interest around skin/muscle, joints, eye care, heart health, digestion and brain/memory.

• Boomers want proven benefits and look for products related to healthy aging. They are wary of adverse health effects.

• They prefer pills, vitamins, natural dietary supplements, condition-specific products.

• They avoid products with artificial ingredients, and with stated side effects.

• Influencers include individuals who personify healthy aging, with advice on diet, weight loss and general health education.

Generation X?

This age group is the most time-constrained, and are striving for more of a work-life balance. Their dietary supplement use is mostly around addressing middle-age maladies, and their dietary supplement conversations are largely food focused. Marketing should stress convenience, taste and use in everyday meals, said CBD Marketing.

• They view supplements as a food ingredient.

• They want protein, particularly plant-based protein.

• They prefer products with workout or weight management benefits.

• They don’t want artificial ingredients, vitamin pills or products that have a bad taste or aftertaste.

• Influencers include those who provide recipes, resources and consumer education on food, health and lifestyle.

Millennials?

Protein scoop dietary supplement © Getty Images marekuliasz
© Getty Images / marekuliasz

Most Millennials are interacting on social media every day. They distrust large institutions and their interests lean toward holistic health solutions, sports nutrition, energy and sleep. According to the CBD data, their dietary supplement conversations are very personal and often describe how they feel.

Marketing should highlight how products are personalized to meet consumer needs, are sustainable and natural.

• Protein powder is a very hot topic, especially plant-based. Protein drinks and shakes dominate.

• They want natural ingredients, clean label products.

• Fitness and their own general health and wellness are key.

• They don’t want multi-vitamins, pills, incomplete proteins or anything with a gritty texture or aftertaste. NO to products from big pharma.

• Influencers focus on fitness, personal wellness. Promoting brands is OK.

Marketing impacts of a dietary supplement?

Colman added: “Consumers in all age groups are fueling the growth of the supplement industry, which is expected to be a $278 billion global market by 2024.?

“Even now, in 2018, 76% of U.S. adults report taking supplements—that’s 170 million Americans. To be most impactful with their marketing, the supplement industry needs to tune into nuances that are in plain view on social media.”?

According to data from the Council for Responsible Nutrition’s 2018 Consumer Survey on Dietary Supplements?, 78% of Baby Boomers use supplements, 77% of Gen Xers are supplement users, as are 69% of Millennials.

dietary supplements