New Obesity procedure

New obesity procedure appears to also reduce muscle mass.  A study about a new obesity procedure for the treatment of obesity has raised some concerns. This is because, while the treatment leads to weight loss, the pounds a person sheds consist of skeletal muscle as well as fat. Also, body fat loss seems to be mainly of the subcutaneous — as opposed to the riskier visceral — type.
obesity procedure doctor taking measurements of obese man
Visceral fat can harm health, and some people with obesity resort to surgical procedures to remove it.

Skeletal muscle is necessary for good health; its loss can result in not only physical problems, but it can also impair metabolism and raise the risk of injury.

Visceral fat is the type of fat that surrounds the organs deep inside the abdomen. Doctors have linked carrying too much of it to health problems, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

The new obesity procedure is called left gastric artery embolization. Interventional radiologists have been using it for decades to stop bleeding in emergencies.

However, the idea of using gastric artery embolization to treat obesity is new, and clinical trials are currently evaluating its safety and effectiveness for such a purpose.

The aim of the new obesity procedure treatment is to reduce the effect of an appetite hormone by injecting microscopic beads to block an artery that supplies blood to the stomach.

The study’s findings featured recently at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America that is currently taking place in Chicago, IL.

Need for new cost-effective, low-risk obesity procedures

Study lead author Dr. Edwin A. Takahashi, who is a vascular and interventional radiology fellow at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, explains that a lot of research has shown that gastric artery embolization can achieve weight loss.

“However,” he adds, “there has been no data on what is contributing to the weight loss, whether the patients are losing fat, as desired, or muscle mass, or some combination of the two.”

Obesity is a significant global public health issue with links to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and other serious illnesses and health problems.

Rates of obesity and being overweight have almost tripled worldwide over the last 40 years, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

The WHO estimates for 2016 suggest that being overweight affects more than 1.9 billion of the world’s adults. This figure includes some 650 million adults with obesity.

While changes to lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity can work, for many people, these are not enough, and they opt to undergo weight-loss operations that reduce the size of the stomach.

Such surgical procedures have proved effective as treatments for obesity, but they are costly and carry risks and complications.

Left gastric artery embolization

Left gastric artery embolization — if found to be effective and safe — could offer people a less invasive option for the treatment of obesity.

The obesity procedure involves injecting microscopic beads into the artery that delivers blood to the stomach. The radiologist inserts a catheter either in the wrist or groin and uses imaging to reach the artery.

Once released into the artery, the microbeads block the flow of blood through the smaller blood vessels to the stomach. This has the effect of reducing production of ghrelin, a hunger-stimulating hormone.

Early trials have shown promising results that the procedure can help people lose weight. However, there is little information about where the weight loss comes from, and how it affects body composition of fat and muscle.

Dr. Takahashi and his team examined computed tomography scans of 16 overweight people, some with obesity, who had undergone left gastric artery embolization to stop bleeding.

With help from special software that analyzes tissue density, they assessed fat and muscle composition on scans taken before and about 1.5 months after the treatment.

Results raised some concerns by new obesity procedure

All 16 of the individuals who underwent embolization lost a significant amount of weight afterward. On average, they lost 6.4 percent of their body weight in the ensuing 1.5 months.

Their body mass index (BMI) fell by 6.3 percent over the same period.

The weight loss came as no surprise to the researchers; however, what did surprise them was the alteration in body composition.

They calculated that skeletal muscle index reduced by 6.8 percent. This index reflects the quantity of muscle in the body that is attached to bone and helps the movement of limbs and other body parts.

Loss of skeletal muscle can not only reduce physical function, but it can also damage metabolism and raise the risk of injury.

“The significant decrease in the amount of skeletal muscle,” says Dr. Takahashi, “highlights the fact that patients who undergo this procedure are at risk for losing muscle mass and need to be managed accordingly after [the] procedure.”

We must make sure they receive adequate nutrition to minimize the amount of muscle tissue they lose.”

Dr. Edwin A. Takahashi

The results also showed that the individuals lost a lot of body fat; there was an average drop of 3.7 percent in body fat index.

However, most of the body fat loss was due to the reduction in subcutaneous fat. Loss of visceral fat was insignificant over the follow-up.

Subcutaneous fat is all over the body under the skin. Visceral fat is fat that surrounds the organs deep in the abdominal cavity.

Science “has been distinctly linked” carrying excessive amounts of visceral fat to several health problems and conditions. These include impaired metabolism, insulin resistance, increased risk to certain cancers, prolonged hospitalization, and higher risk of complications.

The team now want to focus further studies on individuals who undergo left gastric artery embolization specifically to treat obesity.

Peanut butter benefits

Benefits of peanut butter are enormous. Peanut butter is a firm favorite among adults and children alike. Although tasty, many people still wonder about the health benefits of peanut butter.

Peanuts and peanut butter contain nutrients that may boost a person’s heart health and improve blood sugar levels.

Depending on how people use peanut butter in their diet, it can help them lose weight, or put on pounds during weight training or bodybuilding.

However, the benefits of peanut butter should be carefully evaluated because peanut butter is high in calories and fat, so people should enjoy it in moderation.

In this article, we look at the benefits of eating peanut butter and explain the risks associated with consuming it.

Nutritional benefits of peanut butter

Peanut butter in a jar from above
Peanut butter is a good source of protein and vitamin B-6.

Peanut butter provides a good amount of protein, along with essential vitamins and minerals, such as magnesium, potassium, and zinc.

Most notably, each 2-tablespoon (tbsp) serving of smooth peanut butter provides the following nutrients, minerals, and vitamins:

  • Protein. Peanut butter contains 7.02 grams (g) of protein per 2-tbsp serving. This counts toward the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for women of 46 g and 56 g for men, which varies by age and activity level.
  • Magnesium. With 57 milligrams (mg) of magnesium, each serving helps towards the RDA of 400–420 mg in men and 310–320 in women. Magnesium is essential for health, playing a role in over 300 chemical processes in the body.
  • Phosphorous. Each serving contains 107 mg of phosphorus, which is about 15.3 percent of the RDA of 700 mg for adults. Phosphorus helps the body to build healthy cells and bones and helps cells to produce energy.
  • Zinc. A serving of peanut butter provides 0.85 mg of zinc. This is 7.7 percent of the recommended daily intake of 11 mg for men, and 10.6 percent of the RDA of 8 mg for women. Zinc is necessary for immunity, protein synthesis, and DNA formation.
  • Niacin. Peanut butter contains 4.21 mg of niacin per serving, which makes a useful contribution towards a person’s recommended intake of 14 to 16 mg. Niacin benefits digestion and nerve function and helps produce energy.
  • Vitamin B-6. With 0.17 g of vitamin B-6 per serving, peanut butter provides almost 14 percent of an adult’s RDA of 1.3 mg. Vitamin B-6 plays a role in over 100 enzyme reactions in the body and may be necessary for heart and immune system health.

However, there are also nutritional disadvantages if a person eats more than the recommended amount of peanut butter.

Peanut butter is high in calories, saturated fats, and sodium.

Each serving contains 3.05 g of saturated fats, which is 23.5 percent of the American Heart Association’s maximum recommended daily intake of saturated fat for those consuming 2,000 calories a day. People should aim for less than 13 g of saturated fat per day.

It also contains 152 mg of sodium, which is 10.1 percent of an adult’s ideal daily upper intake of sodium of 1,500 mg.

Health benefits of peanut butter

Eating peanut butter in moderation and as part of an overall healthful diet may provide the following benefits:

1. Weight loss

Several studies suggest that eating peanuts and other nuts can help people maintain their weight, or even help with weight loss.

This may be because peanuts improve satiety, which is the feeling of fullness, thanks to their protein, fat, and fiber content.

A 2018 study suggests that eating nuts, including peanuts, reduces a person’s risk of being overweight or obese. This study compared the dietary and lifestyle data for over 373,000 people from 10 European countries over 5 years.

Earlier research based on data gathered from over 51,000 women suggested that those who ate nuts twice weekly or more experienced slightly less weight gain over an 8-year period than women who rarely ate nuts.

2. Boosting heart health

Peanut butter contains many nutrients that can improve heart health, including:

  • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
  • niacin
  • magnesium
  • vitamin E

The proportion of unsaturated fats (PUFAs and MUFAs) to saturated fats in the diet plays a particularly important role in heart health. Peanut butter has a similar ratio to olive oil — which is also known as a heart-healthy option.

A high intake of nuts may have links to a reduced risk of mortality from heart disease or other causes. The researchers recommend peanuts in particular as a cost-effective way to improve heart health for some people.

Research also suggests that including 46 g per day of peanuts or peanut butter into an American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet plan for 6 months could benefit the heart, improve blood lipid profiles, and control weight for people with diabetes.

However, as peanut butter is high in calories, it is crucial that a person limits their intake if they do not want to put on weight. Eating more than the recommended amount will also increase fat and sodium intake, which does not benefit the heart.

3. Bodybuilding

Senior lady working out at the gym
Peanut butter is an easy way to increase calorie intake.

Many bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts include peanut butter in their diets for various reasons.

Although calorie amounts will vary based on stature, activity level, and metabolic rate, the typical daily recommended calorie intake ranges from around 1,600–2,400 calories per day for women and up to 3,000 calories per day for men. However, active adult men should consume up to 3,000 calories daily, while active women need up 2,400 calories per day.

Thanks to its high-calorie content, peanut butter is an easy way to increase calorie and unsaturated fat intake.

Nut butter is also a source of protein, which is essential for building and repairing muscles. Although peanut butter is not a complete protein — meaning it does not contain all of the essential amino acids the body needs — it does count toward a person’s daily protein intake.

Spreading peanut butter on whole-grain bread makes a more complete protein meal, as the bread contains the amino acid methionine, which peanut butter lacks.

4. Managing blood sugar levels

Peanut butter is a relatively low-carbohydrate food that contains good amounts of fats and protein, as well as some fiber.

These characteristics mean that peanut butter, with no added sugar, does not have a significant impact on blood glucose levels. This means it can be a good option for those with diabetes and confirm the benefits of peanut butter.

The ADA recommend that people replace saturated fats with monounsaturated fats in their diets. They suggest peanut butter, peanuts, and peanut oil as good sources of monounsaturated fat.

A small 2013 study suggests that eating peanut butter or peanuts for breakfast could help women with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes to manage their blood glucose levels. According to the survey, the women who added nuts to their breakfast had lower blood sugar levels and reported less hunger compared to women who ate a breakfast that contained the same amount of carbohydrates but no nuts.

Peanut butter is a good source of magnesium, which is an essential nutrient for people with diabetes. Continuous periods of high blood sugar may reduce magnesium levels in the body. Low magnesium levels are linked to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

5. Reducing the risk of breast disease

Eating peanut butter, especially from a young age, may reduce the risk of benign breast disease (BBD), which increases the risk of breast cancer.

A study in the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, reports that eating peanut butter and nuts at any age may result in a lower risk of developing BDD by age 30.

The researchers examined the data for over 9,000 schoolgirls in America. Other types of pulses, such as beans and soy, along with vegetable fats and other nuts, may also offer protection from BBD.

Even those with a family history of breast cancer had a significantly lower risk if they ate peanut butter and these other foods.

Peanut butter benefits and nutritional profile

The table below provides a detailed nutritional profile of 2 tbsp of smooth peanut butter:

Calories 188
Protein 7.02 g
Saturated fats 3.05 g
Monounsaturated fats 6.63 g
Polyunsaturated fats 3.63 g
Carbohydrates 7.67 g
Fiber 1.80 g
Sugars 2.08 g
Calcium 17 mg
Iron 0.69 mg
Magnesium 57 mg
Phosphorus 107 mg
Potassium 189 mg
Sodium 152 mg
Zinc 0.85 mg
Niacin 4.21 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.18 mg
Vitamin E 1.90 mg

Peanut allergies

Peanuts and other nuts are common allergens, with a peanut or tree nut allergy affecting over 3 million Americans, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Those with a known peanut allergy should avoid peanut butter and foods containing the nuts.

The NIH also note that just 20 percent of those with an allergy will eventually outgrow the allergy and stop having reactions to nuts.

Which peanut butter is best?

When selecting a peanut butter product, look for one that contains just peanuts and few or no other ingredients.

Some peanut butter brands will contain other ingredients, such as sugar, salt, and added oils. Avoid these where possible. Try adding a little honey to peanut butter dishes as a sweetener instead.

It is normal for pure peanut butter to separate into solid and liquid form. Stir the contents thoroughly, and the consistency will return to normal.

People can buy natural peanut butter in health food stores and online.

To stop the peanut butter going off, store it in the refrigerator.

How to add peanut butter to your diet

Peanut butter, rice cakes and banana
Peanut butter is a healthful option when enjoyed as part of a balanced diet.

Eating more peanut butter is easy. Sometimes, it can be too easy — so be sure to be mindful of your intake to avoid eating more calories than you may need in a day. Remember 2 tbsp of peanut butter is close to 200 calories.

People can include peanut butter in their diets by:

  • Making a classic peanut butter and jelly sandwich, using whole fruit, low sugar jelly, and whole-grain bread.
  • Spreading peanut butter on rice cakes and top with banana slices.
  • Whipping up a Thai peanut dressing for salads, using lime juice, rice vinegar, soy sauce, and honey.
  • Adding a spoonful of the nut butter to smoothies to make them more filling.
  • Dipping apple and pear slices into peanut butter for an easy snack.
  • Stirring peanut butter into yogurts or warm oatmeal.

Summary

The benefits of peanut butter indicate at that peanut butter can be a healthful option when people enjoy it as part of a balanced diet. It is rich in several nutrients, including protein and magnesium, which may help protect the heart and manage blood sugar and body weight.

However, eating too much peanut butter can increase a person’s daily intake of saturated fat, sodium, and calories.

Those who have a peanut allergy should avoid peanut butter as it could trigger a potentially deadly reaction.

Obesity versus Depression

Is depression the cause of obesity or is obesity the cause of depression? Although depression and obesity often come hand in hand, the relationship between the two is difficult to tease apart. A new, large-scale genomic study adds new evidence.

Pensive woman ponders obesity
The relationship between depression and obesity is complex.

Both excessive weight and depression are significant global health problems. According to the authors of the latest research, they cost the global economy trillions of dollars every year.

Previous studies have noted that depression often appears in individuals who are overweight or obese.

However, observational studies have not been able to demonstrate whether obesity causes depression, as there are many competing factors to consider.

For instance, being grossly overweight is a risk factor for a number of conditions, and so it might be that dealing with other health issues increases the likelihood of becoming depressed, rather than the obesity being the cause.

Some researchers have argued that the relationship might be the other way around: depression is a risk for obesity.

Others believe that depression and obesity exacerbate each other. For instance, obesity might make depression more likely to occur initially, but once depressive symptoms arise, they might compound the condition by making it harder for the individual to exercise. In these cases motivation of the individual would be a great place to start.

Obesity and depression revisited

To gain a better understanding of this complicated relationship, researchers from the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom joined forces with scientists from the University of South Australia. They published their results in the International Journal of Epidemiology this week.

“Obesity and depression are both global health problems that have a major impact on lives and are costly to health services,” explains lead author Dr. Jess Tyrrell. “We’ve long known there’s a link between the two, yet it’s unclear whether obesity causes depression or vice versa, and also whether it’s being overweight in itself or the associated health problems that can cause depression.”

The study used genetic data to inspect the causal relationship between excessive weight and depression. The team wanted to understand whether a higher body mass index (BMI) was related to an increased risk of depression without the presence of other health conditions.

The researchers used genetic and medical data from 48,000 people with depression and compared it with in excess of 290,000 controls, making it the largest study to address this question to date.

Psychological impact to blame?

Overall, as expected, a higher BMI was associated with higher odds of depression. This association was stronger in women than men, confirming earlier findings. Women with a high BMI had a 21 percent increase in risk, compared with 8 percent in men.

By investigating individuals with genes predisposing them to obesity but without ones that predispose them to metabolic conditions, such as diabetes — referred to as a “favorable metabolic profile” — the researchers could separate out the psychological component of obesity.

In their analysis, they accounted for a range of variables that could influence the results, including socioeconomic position, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity.

They found that individuals with a favorable metabolic profile were just as likely to develop depression as individuals with obesity that carried genes predisposing them to develop metabolic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in women.

To double-check their findings, they also took data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. And their second analysis returned similar results, adding further weight to their conclusions.

“Our robust genetic analysis concludes that the psychological impact of being obese is likely to cause depression.” Dr. Jess Tyrrell

These results provide vital insight, as Dr. Tyrrell explains, “This is important to help target efforts to reduce depression, which makes it much harder for people to adopt [healthful] lifestyle habits.”

However, the relationship between the two is convoluted, and questions remain. As the authors write, “we have not ruled [out] a possible bidirectional causal relationship between higher BMI and depression […] Further research is required to explore the causal role of depression on body mass index and obesity.”

Because depression and obesity can have profound impacts on individuals and society at large, scientific attention is likely to continue to look at their links.